verschillende emoties

Primaire emoties of basis emoties?

Hoeveel emoties zijn er nu in basis aanwezig in de mens? In de psychologie is daar veel over geschreven, maar lang niet iedereen is het met elkaar eens. Dat geldt ook voor de benaming van basis emoties… of primaire emoties? De een zegt dat alle emoties zijn terug te voeren op 4 basis emoties, de ander zegt dat er in basis 6 emoties zijn, weer een ander zegt: ‘nee, het zijn er 7’ en maakt verschil tussen primaire en secundaire emoties. En dan komt er weer een nieuwe term bij, namelijk emotiegroepen, daar zijn er 8 van. Hoe zit dat nou allemaal precies?

Basis emoties

Laten we eens beginnen bij de basis. In de psychologie worden 4 emoties genoemd waar alle gevoelens naar terug te herleiden zijn: Bang, Boos, Blij en Bedroefd, oftewel:

  • Angst
  • Boosheid
  • Vreugde
  • Verdriet

Vaak wordt opgemerkt dat er daarvan 3 negatief zijn en slechts 1 daarvan positief. Daarmee maakt men dan eigenlijk weer een onderscheid in 2 groepen: positief en negatief. Welke ook vaak gehanteerd wordt in de alternatieve psychologie namelijk de indeling tussen liefde en angst. Ziel en Ego. Hart en Hoofd.
Niet alle psychologen zijn het eens over de verdeling in 4 basis emoties. Er wordt daarom ook vaak gesproken over 6 basis emoties, namelijk met een toevoeging van:

  • Verbazing
  • Afschuw

Waarom men het hier niet over eens is, is omdat deze emoties pas iets later na de geboorte ontwikkeld worden. Deze 6 emoties zijn gekoppeld aan zes type gezichtsuitdrukkingen waarmee je deze emoties kun uiten. Nog zo’n buitenbeentje is Schaamte en daarmee gepaard Schuld, hoewel deze emoties door de aanhangers van 7 basis emoties wordt omschreven als:

  • Minachting

Deze emotie wordt pas waargenomen wanneer er zelfbewustzijn is ontwikkeld en is sterk verbonden met goed- en fout-denken, waardoor je je kunt afvragen of het wel echt een emotie is die in ons in basis gegeven is, maar welke wel zeer menselijk is. Met deze toevoeging komen we dus op 7 basis emoties. Die bij alle mensen over de hele wereld voorkomen. De uitingsvorm echter van deze laatste emotie lijkt erg op die van afschuw en boosheid samen.

Je zult je afvragen waarom Liefde vaak niet in het rijtje wordt genoemd. Mogelijk, omdat er veel onderzoek uit het Engelstalige komt en daar liefde en vreugde tezamen wordt toegeschreven aan de emotie Geluk (happiness). Gelukkig zien we deze toevoeging in het Nederlands wel steeds vaker opdoemen. In het Engelse onderzoeksgebied zie je vaak een verdeling van 4, 6 of 8 basis emoties. Waar er bij de 8 basis emoties ook een polaire variant tegenover wordt geplaatst, namelijk:

                Joy (vreugde) - Sadness (verdriet)
Anger (boosheid) - Fear (angst)
Trust (vertrouwen) - Distrust (wantrouwen)
Surpise (verbazing) - Anticipation (hoop/verwachting)

Snap je het nog? Wat een verschillen van mening he? Maar de hamvraag is: waarom zou je emoties willen indelen? Laten we daarvoor eerst eens de term primaire emoties bekijken, want dan krijg je een idee over waar emoties eigenlijk voor zijn.

Primaire emoties

Primaire emoties zijn niet, zoals je misschien veronderstelde, hetzelfde als basis emoties. Deze benaming refereert niet aan welke emoties er in basis in ons aanwezig zijn, maar refereert naar de manier waarop wij emotioneel reageren. Waarin we grofweg zouden kunnen zeggen:

  • Primaire emoties zijn een eerste (instinctieve) reactie op iets in de buitenwereld.
  • Secundaire emoties zijn emotionele reacties als feedback op wat jij er daarna mentaal van maakt.

Bijvoorbeeld, je loopt op straat en je bent getuige van een nogal agressieve aanpak van baas tegen hond. Je primaire emotionele reactie is schrik (angst), omdat dat een instinctieve reactie is ten aanzien van agressie. Je oerbrein schat in hoe veilig het voor jou is om daar over straat te lopen. Daarna ga je conclusies trekken over de situatie, over je eigen gevoelens én van alles vinden van die man en komen er als antwoord op al die gedachten secundaire emotionele reacties als minachting, boosheid of misschien verdriet. We onderscheiden hier dus emoties voortvloeiende uit je overlevingsinstinct en emoties uit je menselijk brein dat vooral bezig is met persoonlijk identificeren.

Emotiegroepen

Terugkomende op de vraag waarom je emoties zou willen indelen zijn we nu toe aan het uitleggen waarom Vera Helleman, ontwikkelaar van de EmotieCoaching, de term ‘emotiegroepen’ in het leven heeft geroepen. Zij heeft onderzocht waarom de basis emoties ons meegegeven zijn en wat dan precies de functie is van zowel de primaire als de secundaire emotionele reacties, oftewel: wat moeten we ermee?

De functie van emoties

Zoals je in het stuk over primaire emoties kunt lezen heeft de mens een innerlijke drive om te overleven, zowel fysiek als op laag van identiteit. Het moet het lichaam en de identiteit beschermen. Maar ook moet het het zielenpad bewaken. Emoties spreken tot ons op al die drie lagen, fysiek, mentaal en spiritueel. De manier waarop ze dat doen is afhankelijk van de emotie. Nu is het niet zo dat de mens slechts 4, 6, 7, of 8 emoties heeft, wij ervaren er veel meer. Vele nuances en combinaties van basis emoties komen voor, de zogenaamde broertjes en zusjes. Deze kun je onderverdelen in 8 emotiegroepen. Je zou ze ook kunnen scharen onder basis emoties, maar omdat men het niet eens is over deze verdeling is de basisverdeling van de 8 emotiegroepen op een ander fundament gestoeld, namelijk: het doel van de emotie. Hiermee bedoelen we dat ieder emotietype een functie heeft om jou voort te bewegen in deze aardse wereld. Je zou ook kunnen zeggen dat emotiegroepen correleren met bepaalde levensthema’s. Dit heeft vele voordelen voor therapeutische toepassingen, omdat emoties een spreekbuis zijn voor zowel diagnostiek op basis van emoties als sturing en heling met behulp van emoties.

Emotieladders

Bij het scharen van emoties in deze groepsverdeling passen zowel alle basisemoties als alle nuances die daaruit voortvloeien, waardoor wij emotieladders kunnen vormen. Deze emotieladders vormen een therapeutisch handvat waarmee duidelijk wordt in hoeverre een persoon in verbinding is met zichzelf of van zichzelf verwijderd. Het ene boos is namelijk heel gezond, het andere is destructief.

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Het Emotie Expertise Centrum heeft als doelstelling het overdragen van kennis en inzicht over de functie, boodschap, werking van en omgang met emoties.
Wij streven ernaar dat emoties weer de positieve aandacht krijgen die ze verdienen, zodat de mens in balans met zichzelf en zijn omgeving kan functioneren.

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